Over the past 30 years the world has made tremendous progress in the development of neuroscience. The reason for increased interest regarding the subject is the theoretical and practical importance of the issue to understand human nature and health. This scientific area illuminates our understanding of the brain and its operations.
Nowadays, neuroscience remains one of the most demanded branches. Based on statistics, mental disorders are in third place among the others.
During the 20th century scientists from different countries, including Russia, have contributed to medical breakthroughs in neuroscience. Russian soviet-era eminent scientists I.P. Pavlov, V.M. Behterev and A.R. Luria made an important leap forward in the area of clinical neurology.
I.P. Pavlov was a supreme physiologist, who is universally regarded as one of the greatest medical scientist of all time, is considered to be one of the founders of world neurosciences. He created a new concept of “conditioned reflex”, which opened up new vistas of research in the understanding of human psychology.
Pavlov emphasized the high plasticity of the central nervous system. He investigated the complex functional systems within the brain and between the organism and its environment. He designed models for pathology of the higher nervous activity.
The basis for a specific development of surgical treatment of the nervous system pathology in Russia was made by its active supporter, a neurologist V.M.Behterev. He was one of the prominent scientists of his era, who played a crucial role in the study of the development of the brain's organization, neurophysiology and neuropathology and in the objective study of psychological phenomena.
The German Professor F. Kopsch (1868-1955) said that "only two individuals, namely the God and Bekhterev, know excellently the anatomy of the brain".
A.R.Luria’s scientific accomplishments were in the broad area of neuropsychology, with major contributions to the study of brain damage in adults, with resulting motor-sensory disruption, memory disorders, and language. One of the major world-wide additions Luria made to the field of neuropsychology was the concept of the functional system.
He believed the frontal lobes of man play a major role in intelligence.
Of course, it is not yet a full list of eminent Russian neuroscientists, but only a brief introduction of some and their scientific breakthroughs. It's worth mentioning that many neurodisciplines all over the world were based on their theories and concepts. MMHC professionals rely upon and develop these approaches.